Telangana – States of India

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25 Feb, 2016

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TELANGANA

Language: Telugu, Urdu (Dakhani or Hyderabadi)

Capital: Hyderabad

Chief Minister: K. Chandrashekar Rao (First Chief Minister of the state)

Governor: E.S.L. Narasimhan (First Governor of the state)

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Geography and Demography

Telangana is the 29th and newest state of the Indian Union (formed on 2 June 2014)

The name Telangana is derived from the word ‘Trilinga’, which translates to “the country of the three lingas”.

Telangana is a land-locked state and one of the five Southern states of India.

Telangana was one of the three regions of the un-separated Andhra Pradesh (Other two regions being Andhra and Rayalseema)

Most of the state is situated on the Deccan Plateau

Krishna and Godavari are the major rivers of Telangana

Bhima, Manjira and Musi are other prominent rivers of the state

Telangana touches 5 states – Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Karnataka.

Telangana is the 12th largest state of the country (area of 114,840 square kilometres)

It is also the 12th largest state according to the population (Population in Census 2011 – 35,193,978)

Northern parts of the state receive more rainfall as compared to the southern parts

Telangana has 10 districts altogether – Adilabad, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, khammam, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Ranga Reddy and Warangal.

Mahbubnagar district is the largest district of the state (area Mahbubnagar sq. km) while Hyderabad is the smallest district (are 217 sq. km.)

Ranga Reddy district is the most populous district with population of 5,296,396 (Census 2011)

Hyderabad is the most densely populated district (Population Density of 18480 per sq. km. (Census 2011). Hyderabad is also the largest city of the state.

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Politics

The name Telangana is derived from the word ‘Trilinga’, which translates to “the country of the three lingas”.

The new state of Telangana was carved out of Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014

With formation of Telangana ten districts were taken out of Andhra Pradesh as they became part of Telanagana

The demand for separate state of Telangana was an old demand of people of Telangana region of the state and this is major political problem of state even now

Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS), played important role in the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh

Srikrishna Commission, formed to give its recommendations on formation of Telangana state, gave its report to the union govt. in 2011

Srikrishna Commission in its report suggested 6 alternative options for solving Telangana problem instead of straight-forward recommending formation of Telangana state

Inclusion or exclusion of Hyderabad was the main problem in formation of new state of Telangana as Telangana supporters wholeheartedly wanted Hyderabad to be included in their future state. On the other hand people of other regions are opposed to this decision as they will people from whole state have contributed to development of Hyderabad as a major city of India

Telangana is one of India’s most Naxalite-prone areas. It is part of the “Red Corridor” area of country

People’s War Group (PWG) is the most important, influential and active naxalite organization of Telangana

PWG was founded in 1980 by Kondapalli Sitaramaiah. PWG’s highlight has been its active involvement in violent incidents of the state

PWG was merged in Communist Party of India (Maoist) in 2004, however its influence continues even as an independent entity

Important cities of Telangana are – Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar

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Hyderabad

Hyderabad was established in 1591 by Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah belonging to the Qutub Shahi dynasty

Bhagyanagar (or Bhagnagaram) is believed to be earlier name of Hyderabad, which was named after Bhagmati, whom Quli Qutub Shah had married

Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah also built Charminar, the famous icon of Hyderabad after end of an plague epidemic in the city

Golconda is an ancient place lying southwards to Hyderabad, which was famous for the Golconda Fort and famous Koh-e-Noor diamond, which was mined from mines of Golconda

Hyderabad lies on the almost dead ‘Musi River’, which was once main source of water to the city

The British developed a new cantonment town in the north of Hyderabad city, which was named as Secunderabad

An artificial lake named Hussain Sagar Lake separates Hyderabad from Secunderabad

Hussian Sagar lake contains a rock called ‘Rock of Gibraltar’ amidst it. On this rock stands India’s largest monolith statue – a statue of Lord Buddha

Hyderabad and Secunderabad are known as twin-cities and have developed into a huge bustling metropolis now

Hyderabad is the fourth largest city of India in terms of population (2011 population stood at over 77 lakh, thus making Hyderabad more populated than Chennai)

Hyderabad was famous for its rulers called Nizams

The Seventh and last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman had rejected appeals of Indian Govt. to merge with the Indian union after India’s Independence in 1947. The Nizam wanted an independent status for its state which was unacceptable to Indian govt. Hyderabad was then merged into Indian union by armed intervention called ‘Operation Polo’ on 17 September 1948. This intervention is however mentioned as police intervention in historical documents

Hyderabad is also called ‘City of Pearls’ due to blooming pearl trade in the city and ‘Cyberabad’ due to concentration of many IT companies in the city

Telugu film industry is also concentrated in Hyderabad for which Hyderabad is also called ‘Tollywood’

India’s largest film city – Ramoji Film City has been developed near Hyderabad

Hyderabad also houses many old and famous studios like – Padmalaya and Suresh Productions

Air Force Academy, which provides both technical and logistical training to officers of the Indian Air Force (IAF), is also situated in the outskirts of Hyderabad. Technical training is also provided in IAF’s stations in Begumpet and Hakimpet, also within city

Hyderabad’s Sardar Patel Police Academy provides training to India’s IPS officers

Hyderabad’s international airport is the Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGIA), which is located in Shamshabad, an outskirt of Hyderabad. This airport was developed by GMR, a leading infrastructure developer of country and is the second airport in the country to be managed by a govt.-private enterprise (First being the Kochi airport in Kerala)

Hyderabad is famous for Salarjung Museum, which is famous for being India’s largest one-man collection of artifacts

Mecca Masjid (Near Charminar) of Hyderabad was built by Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb and is the largest mosque of South India

Hyderabad has numerous famous public sector organizations and institutions, which have contributed immensely in city’s development. Some of these are – Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), HMT Bearings Limited, Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), ISRO’s National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), ICRISAT, Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited (IDPL), The English and Foreign Languages University (former name CIEFL) Administrative Staff College, Indian School of Business and ICFAI

India’s famous business school – Indian School of Business (ISB) is headquartered in Hyderabad

Hyderabad has unique distinction of having three national parks in its vicinity – 1) K. Brahmananda Reddy National Park 2) Mahaveer Deer National Park 3) Mrigvani National Park

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Art and Culture

Nirmal paintings and Nirmal toys, which are from Adilabad’s Nirmal village in Telangana, are famous the world over

Andhra Pradesh has two traditional saree making centers after which saree names have become famous. These are Gadwal and Pochampally.

Black metal making of Telangana is also famous all over the country. Statues of black metal are made under this art. Hyderabad and areas around it was famous for black metal manufacturing.

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana’s new year is known as Ugadi

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Warangal is one of the most culturally-rich places in Telangana

Warangal was the capital of the Kakatiya Dynasty from 1195 AD to 1323 AD, when the ruling family of Kakatiyas lost to the Delhi Sultanate

Ancient name of Warangal was ‘Orugallu’, which was later changed to “Warangallu” and finally settled as Warangal. Kazipet Kunction (in Warangal) is one of the important railway stations of Indian Railways that connects North and South India.

‘Thousand Pillar Temple’ of Hanamkonda (Warangal) is one of the most famous monuments of Telangana.

The Maha Pushkaram festival in 2015 attracted 57 million people in the Telangana state. It was held from 14 July to 25 July 2015. This festival occurs once every 144 years, corresponding to the 12th recurrence of the 12-year Godavari Pushkaram cycle.

Lambada and Banjara are famous tribes of Telangana

Hari Katha and Burra Katha are famous oral-storytelling technique prevalent in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. While Harikatha is a composite art form composed of storytelling, poetry, music, drama, dance, and philosophy about Hindu mythology Burra Katha is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes.

Telugu is the most prominent language of Telangana and is spoken by about 80 per cent people residing in the state

Telugu is a mixed form of Sanskrit and Prakrut (an earlier form of Hindi, which evolved out of Sanskrit). Vijaynagar Empire’s King Sri Krishna Deva Raya’s regime is known as the golden age of Telugu due to his immense patronage to this language

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